Chemical plant engineering deals with the technical implementation of installations and is a wideranging branch of the economy. Chemical plant engineering is a significant economic factor in Germany and worldwide. The process technology installations in Germany yield approx. 50 % of the entire industrial production.
Important terms of reference for the engineers in automobile construction relate to the consistent implementation of lightweight construction. In this respect, the material mix and design in the body shell play an absolutely decisive role. In addition to aluminium, hot-formed and ultrahigh-strength steels are thus often utilised as the materials in large-scale series. Solely by using this matrial mix for lightweight construction was it possible to provide the body shell structure of a medium-size vehicle with a design which was approx. 40 kilogrammes lighter.
Pressure devices are defined by the European "Pressure Device Directive" (PDD) 97/23/EC. The directive stipulates the requirements on the pressure devices for the introduction of pressure devices on to the market within the European Economic Area. Since May 29, 2002, PDD has already been binding throughout the European Union.
Electrotechnology and electronics are amongst the most significant branches of the economy worldwide and modern life would be inconceivable without them. Electrotechnology can be roughly divided into heavy-current and weak-current technology. Heavy-current technology is mainly split into the fields of energy and drive technology. In the field of weak-current technology, emphasis should be placed on communications technology from which electronics have also originated.
Energy technology deals with a large number of interdisciplinary subjects for everything to do with the subject of energy. In this respect, the increasing energy needs all over the world necessitate the environmentally compatible, economically viable and reliable provision of energy. No matter whether this is generated from fossil, gas-based or coal-based power stations, nuclear technology installations or solar-thermal power stations. The subject of renewable energies (e.g. from wind, water, sun and geothermics) should not be neglected.
Goods in the most diverse sizes and types are fabricated in mechanical engineering. It encompasses products such as planned microsubmarines for cleaning blood vessels via household appliances, engines and turbines right up to gigantic tunnel drilling machines and brown coal excavators. Important scientific subdisciplines of mechanical engineering are, amongst others, materials engineering, thermodynamics, technical mechanics, fabrication technology, flow mechanics, drive technology and design theory.
In the case of a railway line, the track bed with the assembled tracks, also called the rail track, is designated as the permanent way. The foundation, a solid base for the track structure, is located underneath this. The permanent way normally consists of the ballast track bed on which sleepers are placed and the rails which are fixed on the sleepers with fastenings. The ballast track bed is very good at absorbing the forces introduced by the vehicles and can distribute them on to the foundation.
Pipeline construction encompasses all types of pipelines which are utilised for transporting media of the most diverse types, e.g. liquids, gases and district heating. All over the world, approx. 155 million tonnes of steel pipes made of various materials are produced per year. In this respect, German steel construction producers account for approx. 2.7 million tonnes.
Rail vehicle construction deals with the manufacture and maintenance of rail vehicles. Rail vehicles are essentially understood to be locomotives, motor train sets, rail cars, wagons and rail construction vehicles. The existing stock of rail vehicles on the railways in Germany amounts to approx. 12,000 locomotives and rail cars, 15,000 passenger carriages and 130,000 goods wagons.
The value added chain in the maritime industry encompasses not only the shipyards and the producers of components and systems but also various services in technical and business management fields. In this respect, the German shipbuilding industry earned a turnover of approx. € 18 billion per year with a total of approx. 2,800 companies and 80,000 employees. The total turnovers of the German shipyard businesses with 50+ employees currently amount to approx. € 5 billion with an export proportion of nearly 75 %.
In colloquial language, the term metal construction is used for almost any type of processing of metals such as steel and aluminium, also in combination with other materials. Following this colloquial definition, this term essentially includes the following metal construction products: Steel construction products such as buildings, halls, bridges, lock gates, platforms, walkways, stairways, conservatories and railings as well as metal construction products such as scaffolds, shelves, gates, doors, facades and equipment for games and sports.
Ever more significance is being attached to underwater welding due to the increasing utilisation of offshore wind farms. Underwater welding is used for the construction and maintenance of docks, waterways, underwater pipelines, lock installations, dams, hydroelectric power stations and offshore platforms, for shipbuilding as well as for salvaging measures. At present, the public is following the complicated salvaging of the Costa Concordia cruise ship off the Italian island of Giglio. This is only possible due to one of the largest deployments of welding divers in history.
Military technology is understood to be the technical setting-up of military armaments. In military technology, the two main categories are heavy and light equipment. Heavy equipment includes, amongst other items, tanks, warships and aircraft and light equipment rifles and guns.